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Brad Meltzer's Decoded, (or simply Decoded), was an American mystery and conspiracy theory the meanings behind various symbolism, alleged secret codes and conspiracies that surround us every day. a detailed paper online titled "What Brad Meltzer's Decoded Missed About The REAL Title, Original air date. on home E. ecological enlightenment _network conspiracies F. flexible work hours labor I. income enhancement _tax evasion I. distributed access _joe code K. prejudice N. alternative markets _remote control 0. online dating __ sensory. The Internet has been a particular boon for the spread of conspiracy theories. . analysis of the correlates of conspiracy theorizing to date, Swami et al. . we followed up on our coding with a run of the Linguistic Inquiry and.
Most notably, as conspiracism has its basis in disbelieving a mainstream or received narrative rather than in believing a specific alternative, most conspiracist arguments tend to fall along those same lines. Finally, we examine the implications of this methodology for future research into online discussion, particularly among hard-to-research populations. Contemporary speculation about assassinations, terrorist attacks, wars, medicine, and climate science follows on from a rich tradition—the witch panics of medieval Europe, rumors of Masonic conspiracies to destroy Christianity and monarchy, and long-standing suspicions that governments lie and cheat in order to maintain power.
In conspiracist worldviews, the major forces in the world are not overt, but covert, hiding from the world at large as they move the pieces into place for their impending masterstroke Hofstadter, ; Byford, KEY CONCEPT 1 Conspiracy theory An allegation regarding the existence of a secret plot between powerful people or organizations to achieve some goal usually sinister through systematic deception of the public.
The Internet has been a particular boon for the spread of conspiracy theories. Online publishing is free, instantaneous, global, and unburdened by editorial control. Conspiracy theories, now unhindered by skeptical publishers and producers, can reach a wider audience than ever—and one does not need to seek them out to come across them Klein et al.
They can be seen in the comment sections of many major news websites, for example, providing an underground counterpoint to the views expressed in the parent article cf.
Sapountzis and Condor, ; Harambam and Aupers, As the visibility of conspiracy theories has increased, so too has the volume of research into the psychology of conspiracy belief. Although there was some early work on the subject in the mid- to late-twentieth century, most of what we know about belief and disbelief in conspiracy theories comes from research conducted in the past 15 years. Much of this research is correlational, so it remains largely unclear whether the identified variables contribute to conspiracy belief, are effects of conspiracy belief, or are associated with it for some other reason.
Nevertheless, a general picture is emerging, and given the right information we can predict with reasonable certainty the degree to which someone sees conspiracy as the driving force in human history. In this focused review, we use the content of online discussions of conspiracy theories to place recent research findings into context. Given what we know about conspiracist worldviews, what can we expect about how people might try to convince others of conspiracy theories?
A core concept here is projection—the tendency to use the self as a model for how others think and behave.
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Many social judgments rely on projection, including belief and disbelief in conspiracy theories. The degree to which someone believes that a conspiracy is behind a particular event say, the death of Princess Diana depends in part on whether they would carry out the conspiracy themselves if they were in the same position as the alleged perpetrators Douglas and Sutton, Projection is also used in persuasion.
We cannot see into others' minds, and we do not always know someone well enough to predict how they will react to something. In the absence of information about others, we tend to assume that they are more or less like us, and that their reactions to a certain stimulus will be similar to our own—in other words, we project for a review, see Robbins and Krueger, When we know relatively little about our audience, we use the arguments that we ourselves find most convincing, and these tend to be the arguments that fit with our own worldview Darwin et al.
This reasoning is the core of the current focused review. In the absence of information about what others might find convincing—say, when arguing with an audience of complete strangers over the Internet—our arguments will tend to reflect our own beliefs and preconceptions. Thus, an attempt at persuasion can serve as an informative window into the mental life of the persuader.
In a recently published study Wood and Douglas,we made several predictions regarding the patterns of discourse in online arguments about conspiracy theories. Our hypotheses were based on the logic that in the absence of information about the target of persuasion, arguments are essentially projective. In other words, people's chosen arguments reflect their own belief systems. Common claims include that the Twin Towers and World Trade Center 7 were destroyed by demolition charges planted ahead of time, that the Pentagon was hit by a missile or drone rather than a passenger jet, and that United Airlines Flight 93 was shot down by a fighter jet or surface-to-air missile.
While they are not a majority view in Western nations, unlike the alternative theories regarding the death of President John F.
Its adherents include prominent religious figures and heads of state, and there are many different and competing versions of events that circulate within the movement. It is an excellent example of twenty first-century conspiracy culture.
There are a few reasons for this. Moreover, discussion in environments with a great deal of agreement among the participants can lead to group polarization—the tendency for like-minded groups and their members to develop more and more extreme opinions over time.
The development of group polarization could in turn affect the level of hostility in communication e. Finally, we considered it important to collect a reasonably large sample of both conspiracist and conventionalist comments, and websites catering to one group are unlikely to feature many postings from the other.
As such, we extracted online comments from mainstream news websites. Although these sites inevitably take conventionalist positions, they attract large numbers of comments of both types, many of which are aimed at persuading undecided readers. Whether the articles mentioned conspiracy theories or not, however, the comment sections would often include a spirited debate between conspiracists and conventionalists regarding the true cause of the attacks, providing a great deal of raw material.
Our analysis of these comments revealed some noteworthy patterns regarding the nature of online discussion of conspiracy theories, and provided valuable insight into the minds of conspiracists and conventionalists.
We measured several aspects of each comment, dealt with in each of the subsections below. Kennedy JFKas a reference point. Interestingly, the number of unrelated conspiracy theories mentioned favorably and unfavorably was different between conspiracist and conventionalist comments. On average, conspiracist comments mentioned about six times as many other conspiracy theories as being true as conventionalist comments did 0.
Conventionalist comments, on the other hand, made about nine times as many negative references to other conspiracy theories as conspiracist comments did 0. This replicates a classic finding in conspiracy psychology—the tendency for conspiracy beliefs to be positively correlated with one another.
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In the most comprehensive analysis of the correlates of conspiracy theorizing to date, Swami et al. The strongest predictor by far, however, was beliefs in other conspiracy theories. In fact, this is probably the most consistent finding of the research literature so far—the more someone believes in one conspiracy theory, the more they tend to believe in others see also Goertzel, ; Swami et al.
While this correlation may be attributable in part to the fact that many diverse conspiracy beliefs are predicted by the same variables Sutton and Douglas,many researchers have interpreted this key finding as evidence for a general conspiracy worldview, a belief system in which conspiracy is the dominant force in history and the truth of major events is hidden from the public as a matter of course Goertzel, ; Imhoff and Bruder, This worldview or thinking style, sometimes referred to as conspiracist ideation e.
Conspiracist ideation is seen not as a positive belief, but a negative belief—a disbelief, or a generalized rejection of received narratives rather than an acceptance of specific alternatives. Several converging lines of evidence support this conception of the nature of conspiracist ideation. Imhoff and Bruder and Oliver and Wood have demonstrated that conspiracist ideation is mostly independent of other sociopolitical dimensions like right-wing authoritarianism, conservatism, and social dominance orientation though not entirely; see, e.
Van Prooijen et al. Acceptance of conspiracy theories is also positively correlated with proneness to boredom Brotherton and Eser,agency detection Van der Tempel and Alcock, ; Douglas et al. Similarly, Swami et al. Finally, theoretical and qualitative works present a convincing case that conspiracy theorizing is very often an anti-authoritarian activity, focused on challenging dominant societal power structures and providing counter-narratives to mainstream understandings of the world Raab et al.
Nothing insane going on here at all. Q promises that Clinton, Obama, Podesta, Abedin, and even McCain are all either arrested and wearing secret police-issued ankle monitorsor just about to be indicted; that the Steele dossier is a total fabrication personally paid for by Clinton and Obama ; and that the Las Vegas massacre was most definitely an inside job connected to the Saudi-Clinton cabal.
They believe all of this will be coming to a head any day now.
Though there have been some, uh, miscalculations as for exactly when. Q Clearance Patriot My fellow Americans, over the course of the next several days you will undoubtedly realize that we are taking back our great country the land of the free from the evil tyrants that wish to do us harm and destroy the last remaining refuge of shining light.
Confirmation to the public of what is occurring will then be revealed and will not be openly accepted. Public riots are being organized in serious numbers in an effort to prevent the arrest and capture of more senior public officials. False leaks have been made to retain several within the confines of the United States to prevent extradition and special operator necessity.
Rest assured, the safety and well-being of every man, woman, and child of this country is being exhausted in full. However, the atmosphere within the country will unfortunately be divided as so many have fallen for the corrupt and evil narrative that has long been broadcast. We will be initiating the Emergency Broadcast System EMS during this time in an effort to provide a direct message avoiding the fake news to all citizens.