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Website, More Radio. More Radio Eastbourne, formerly Sovereign FM, is an Independent Local Radio station serving First air date, 17 November Full New Zealand sovereignty can be dated to – both in terms of In this sense, can be said to mark the date of New Zealand's legal .. [back]; F. M. Brookfield, 'A New Zealand Republic? About Us · Glossary · FAQs · Careers · Contact us · Accessibility · Copyright · Privacy · Alerts · Website Help · Sitemap. Radio broadcasting in the United States has been used since the early s to distribute .. in early , after it was moved to a new site without first getting government approval. .. ordered to be off the air by January 1, if they had not converted to FM by that date. Hawaiian sovereignty movement · Ideologies.

Navy stations inaugurated daily time signal broadcasts.

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In Valdemar Poulsen developed an arc converter transmitter, which, although still somewhat limited, would be the most commonly used transmitter employed for early audio experimentation.

Initially the main objective for most inventors was developing devices usable for individual point-to-point communication, and the fact that radio signals could be overheard by others was at first seen as a defect that limited secure communication. Thus, it took awhile before the potential of "sending signals broadcast" was recognized. In lateReginald Fessenden demonstrated an alternator transmitter at Brant Rock, Massachusetts, [30] and many years later stated that he had also conducted broadcasts on the evenings of December 24 and The leading early proponent of radio broadcasting in the United States was Lee de Forestwho employed versions of the Poulsen arc transmitter to make a series of demonstrations beginning in Herrold began making test transmissions inand, after switching to an improved arc transmitter, announced in July that his station at the Herrold College of Wireless and Engineering was inaugurating weekly musical concerts.

In the mids the development of vacuum tube transmitters provided a significant improvement in the quality and reliability of audio transmissions. During a successful demonstration program held in Octoberde Forest now prophesied "in the near future a music central in every large city whence nightly concerts will radiate to thousands of homes through the wireless telephone".

While it was active, it inspired David Sarnoffthen the Contract Manager at American Marconi and future president of the Radio Corporation of America RCAto author his first "Radio Music Box" memo, suggesting that his company establish a broadcasting station and sell receivers, but his superiors did not take him up on the idea. As early as March the station was occasionally used to make voice and music broadcasts, although at the time this was described as "merely incidental" to the company's primary efforts.

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Cannon reported that from December to February he had maintained "a regular schedule from 9: In addition to time signals and weather reports, NAA also broadcast in Morse code news summaries that were received by troops on land [42] and aboard ships in the Atlantic.

This was primarily oriented toward point-to-point communication such as air-to-ground transmissions, but there were also scattered reports of special musical broadcasts conducted to entertain the troops.

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On October 31, the Randolph Wurlitzer Co. Station WWJ traces its history to this station. Initially there were no formal regulations designating which stations could make broadcasts intended for the general public, so a mixture operating under a variety of existing classifications, most commonly Experimental and Amateur, were free to take to the airwaves.

Perhaps the first to take advantage of the lifting of the civilian station restrictions was a Westinghouse engineer, Frank Conradwho had worked on radio communication contracts during the war. On the evening of October 17, he made the first of what would ultimately become a twice-weekly series of programs, broadcast from his home in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania over experimental station 8XK. Gates gave the station's first publicized broadcast, consisting of phonograph records, [61] which garnered national attention, and a wire service report quoted Gates as predicting that nationwide broadcasts "will be an innovation of the near future".

However, the station was ordered to shut down in earlyafter it was moved to a new site without first getting government approval. De Forest transferred the station's transmitter to the California Theater building in San Francisco, where it was relicenced as 6XCand in the spring of it began daily broadcasts of the theater's orchestra. On August 20, the newspaper began limited daily broadcasts, which were expanded beginning August 31 with programming featuring local election returns.

Although there is limited documentation for this station, it reportedly began making a few entertainment broadcasts in the summer of Davis, for radios capable of receiving Frank Conrad's ongoing broadcasts over 8XK. He quickly worked to establish a station at the company's East Pittsburgh plant in time for the upcoming presidential election, which successfully debuted on November 2,initially operating as 8ZZ.

A short time later it became KDKAoperating under a Limited Commercial license originally issued to the company for point-to-point transmissions.

New Zealand Sovereignty: 1857, 1907, 1947, or 1987?

At the time of KDKA's 25th anniversary, station publicity claimed this to be the "world's first regularly scheduled broadcast". Responding to the growing activity, effective December 1, the Department of Commerce adopted regulations explicitly establishing a broadcast station category.

Even President Warren G. Harding, whose May speech to the Washington, D. Chamber of Commerce was the first radio broadcast by a president, [79] had a radio installed in the White House. Entrepreneurs established radio stores to sell parts as well as complete sets that evolved into stylish and expensive consoles the whole family could listen to, or which restaurants and shops could buy to entertain customers. One early example occurred in Aprilwhen WGI in Medford Hillside, Massachusetts introduced an ongoing series of lectures provided by Tufts College professors, which was described as a "wireless college".

Radio advertisement Although it was recognized early in radio's development that, in addition to point-to-point communication, transmissions could be used for broadcasting to a widespread audience, the question immediately arose of how to finance such a service. As early as The Electrician noted that Oliver Lodge had broached the idea that "it might be advantageous to 'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, the industry soon faced a crisis due to mounting costs, and the financial model eventually adopted by a majority of stations was selling advertising airtime, which became known as "American plan".

Initially stations were very cautious about the content of their advertising messages, generally preferring "indirect advertising" such as general sponsorship announcements, in order not to offend the listeners who had "invited them into their homes".

At first "hard sell" and "direct advertising" was discouraged under the oversight of the then-head of the Department of Commerce, Herbert Hoover. Development of radio networks[ edit ] Main article: The next year the company used the same concept to begin establishing the first radio network. Bratney and Harley C. Sovereignty The Peace of Westphalia in helped to establish the notion of a sovereign nation state — one that exercised supreme authority within a territory.

In international law, sovereignty is the legitimate exercise of power by a state.

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De jure sovereignty is the legal right to do so; de facto sovereignty is the ability in fact to do so. Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States lists four qualifications a state should possess to be a person of international law — that is, an entity with the ability to conduct international affairs and represent itself in international organisations. As the sum of official external relations conducted by a country, it encompasses defence, trade, diplomatic representation, treaty making, overseas aid, migration, and membership in international organisations, among others.

New Zealand only gained full capacity to enter into relations with other states in when it passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. If judged by the Montevideo Convention criteria, New Zealand did not achieve full de jure statehood until Nevertheless, the path to this independence began in the preceding century as New Zealand exercised increasing levels of sovereign authority.

Members of the Executive Council were not elected but permanent appointees; the Governor controlled the Legislative Council, and was in turn answerable to the Imperial British Colonial Office. First Independent Steps The first step in achieving more than nominal independence from Britain was taken on 7 Maywhen the first responsible ministry, under Henry Sewell, was formed following the dissolution of Parliament and fresh elections in Because both the first and second ministries lasted only a few weeks, confidence of the House could not be demonstrated.

Responsible government was thus not consolidated untilthe year in which a further degree of autonomy was achieved when the British Parliament passed the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act. It also enabled responsibility for native affairs to be gradually transferred from the British to the Colonial Government, which was essentially achieved by Nevertheless, the Governor of New Zealand retained the prerogative of pardon, and until the Royal Instructions of revoked his powers, could act independently without consulting the Executive Council.

Moreover, responsibility for international trade, defence, and foreign affairs remained under the control of Britain.

For example, under section 61 of the NZCANew Zealand could not impose any duties on its imports or exports that would contravene a United Kingdom trade treaty, and had no authority to negotiate or enter into any international trade agreements.

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Despite New Zealand passing the Confederation and Annexation Act giving it the power to annex any unappropriated Pacific Islands whose occupation by any foreign power would be detrimental to the interests of Australasiapermission was still needed from Britain before New Zealand could annex its first territory — the Kermadec Islands — in Niue and Tokelau became New Zealand protectorates in and respectively.

In the Ross Dependency of Antarctica was claimed by Britain in the first instance before being placed under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General. More independence was asserted in when the colony of New Zealand refused to join Australia as its seventh state. However, a Royal Commission on Federation, established in to inquire into the issue, concluded that there were few benefits for New Zealand in joining the Commonwealth of Australia, and advised: To the solid supporting pillar of the huge fish of New Zealand.

We have assembled here to celebrate the day upon which the Dominion of New Zealand was anointed proclaimed. Kia ora to you under the protecting power of our exalted sovereign King Edward the Seventh. Dicey, came to use Dominion status as shorthand for colonial independence.

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Imperial external affairs still remained the preserve of the British. James Allen was appointed as the first Minister of External Affairs in Prior to this New Zealand had simply acceded to commercial treaties made by Britain.

Sinclair declared in It goes without saying that, as before the signing of the [Versailles] treaty, so since, if the Mother-country were at war the dominions would be at war. But by acquiring a voice upon foreign policy the dominions are under a responsibility that they were not under before.

New Zealand sovereignty: , , , or ? - New Zealand Parliament

Is this voice, about which so much has been written and spoken, a real voice? There is one Government of the Empire in its relation to foreign affairs, and that is the Government of England…The matter that concerns us is how far it is of any benefit to anyone that we should be consulted; and, if we were consulted, is there any man in New Zealand who thinks that we are really fit to judge?

I am quite sure the Opposition would say that we are unfit. I am a member of the Government myself, and I have no sense of fitness to advise the Imperial Government in matters of foreign policy. This dealt with a range of matters concerning international affairs including defence policy, treaties, the League of Nations, trade, and migration. The Balfour Declaration A significant step toward New Zealand gaining a fuller measure of sovereignty over its foreign affairs was the Balfour Declaration of In its Report to the Imperial Conference ofthe Inter-Imperial Relations Committee, chaired by Lord Balfour, declared that Great Britain and the self-governing Dominions were autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic and external affairs… [23] Even here, however, when it came to operational control over foreign affairs, the Balfour Declaration was more circumspect.