Phytomolecules for Obesity and Body Weight Management
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A BMI of 30 or more indicates the person as obese or a person with waist circumference 40 for man and 35 for woman inches is considered as obese. Pharmacological approaches to control obesity have become a prime priority. Due to unclear etiology, the cure of obesity is difficult and challenging. Current trends for obesity management involve multiple pharmacological strategies including blocking nutrient absorption, modulating fat metabolism, regulating adipose signals and modulating the satiety centers [ 9 ].
Although a few medications are available to control obesity yet most of them have been withdrawn due to their hazardous side effects. To seek safer remedies now many natural products are being recommended for curing obesity in most Asian countries. Currently approved medicines for treatment of obesity can be divided into two major classes; i Orlistat, which reduces fat absorption through inhibition of pancreatic lipase and ii Subutramine which is an anorectic or appetite suppressant [ 10 ].
Plant products such as saponins, flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids possess anti-obesity properties. Presence of multiple-phytochemical combinations in plant drugs may result in synergistic effect by their action on multiple molecular targets, thus offering advantages over treatments which often use a single constituent [ 11 ].
Obesity affects not just appearance of a person but disease processes as well. How to diagnose obesity Obesity can be diagnosed by BMI, weight distribution, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio. BMI describe body weight relative to height i.
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A BMI of 30 or more indicates a person as obese or a person with waist circumference 40 for man and 35 for woman inches is also considered as obese [ 13 ]. The current recommended upper limit for waist circumference is cm for a man and 88 cm for women. Waist to hip ratio more than 1 in men or more than 0. Etiology of obesity Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure [ 14 ]. As in most human pathological conditions, genetic and environmental conditions play vital role s in its pathogenesis.
Environmental factors like availability and variety of food, amount of pollution in the air, water, homes and communities, vegetation and infrastructure all influence our lifestyle and behavior — such as what a person eats and how energetic he or she is.
Source of these factors unknowingly affect our metabolism.
Phytomolecules for Obesity and Body Weight Management
This is mostly due to laborsaving technologies at home and mechanized transportation. Like environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to obesity. Energy stored as fat is an essential factor for survival and adaptation during human evolution. This effect is considered polygenic and may also depend on sex and age of the subjects [ 15 - 17 ].
Effects of obesity on the human health Obesity is a chronic condition and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease CVD and type 2 diabetes. Overweight or obese people have a greater probability than normal-weight people for developing metabolic syndromea condition characterized by high blood pressure, insulin resistance and dyslipidemias high levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL and low levels of HDL [ 18 ].
Obesity during pregnancy may cause congenital malformations, such as neural tube effects, hypertension and gestational diabetes. In addition to these conditions, obesity also increases the risk of polycystic ovary disease, ischemic stroke, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, gastro esophageal reflux, osteoarthritis, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and psychological disorders, such as depression [ 19 ].
Approximatelypeople die every year in the United States because of obesity-associated diseases. Treatment and prevention of obesity Any intervention aimed at treating obesity should also focus on how to restore balance of energy intake and energy expenditure.
In a simplified form, these interventions could be divided into three classes: The first treatment option to lose weight is an energyreduced diet and regular physical movement. Increased physical movement can be used to balance energy expenditure by increasing the quantity of energy a body uses.
Walking, cycling, swimming and aerobics are variety of exercises which are really effective and easy to implement. Orlistat is the hydrogenated derivative of lipstatin, which inhibits gastrointestinal lipase.
This medicine acts in the lumen of the gut where it blocks the movement of gastrointestinal lipase [ 2122 ]. Orlistat is also associated with high incidence of side effect s which includes steatorrhea, flatulence and fecal incontinence. Sibutramine is a serotonin and noradrenaline inhibitor but it may cause an increase in blood pressure. It acts mainly as an appetite suppressant [ 2324 ]. Sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are generally used surgical procedures [ 25 ].
Some disadvantages of these procedures are long-term complications such as anemia and malnutrition in the subjects [ 2627 ]. Plants are promising source for anti-obesity therapy Plants are in use since time immemorial as traditional and natural pharmaceutical aids.
Scientists are moving towards natural product based therapeutic formulations to get safer anti-obesity drugs. In current pharmaceutical aids, the phytomedicines are prominent alternatives to the synthetic drugs.Zellweger Syndrome - USMLE Step 1 Peroxisome Disorder
Phytomolecules are the plantderived secondary metabolites eliciting pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals which have little important role s in plant growth and development [ 28 ].
Medically important secondary metabolites include flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and phenylpropanoids. Characteristic facial features include a prominent forehead, wide-set eyes hypertelorisman upturned nose with a grooved tip, and a very small lower jaw and chin micrognathia.
Affected individuals may also have an opening in the roof of the mouth a cleft palate. Males with this condition can have undescended testes. Individuals with atelosteogenesis type 1 typically have an underdeveloped rib cage that affects the development and functioning of the lungs. As a result, affected individuals are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth from respiratory failure.
How common is atelosteogenesis type 1? Atelosteogenesis type 1 is a rare disorder; its exact prevalence is unknown. Only a few dozen affected individuals have been identified.
What genes are related to atelosteogenesis type 1? Mutations in the FLNB gene cause atelosteogenesis type 1. This protein helps build the network of protein filaments cytoskeleton that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move.