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They explained that "although Madonna did not initiate the Indian fashion accessories beauty [ Time included her as one of the Top Icons of all time in fashion, style and design. To experts in the s, her use of fashion was even more eclectic. To a large extent Madonna not only makes fashion, she is fashion. She's a perfect example of how popular culture and street style now influence the world of fashion.
Over the years, Madonna has been one of the most potent style setters of our time. She, just as much as Karl Lagerfeldmakes fashion happen. Fashion and identity for Madonna are inseparable from her aesthetic practices, from her cultivation of her image in her music videos, films, TV appearances, concerts, and other cultural interventions".
She has had about as many looks as she has records. Her ability to constantly reinvent herself and her music has helped to secure her status as an icon, and she has influenced a generation of copycats. In short, no one has had more diverse looks than Madonna". Thus far, her influence on fashion —high, low and otherwise— has transmogrified from 'Who's That Girl? She is frequently associated with the feminist movement and she is considered a revolutionary figure who questioned the boundaries of gender.
She is also responsible for influencing the mentality and behavior of women and how society interprets these changes. According to her, "Madonna has taught young women to be fully female and sexual while still exercising total control over their lives". Madonna was included in The Guardian list of the Top women and editor Homa Khaleeli declared "no matter the decade or the fashion, she has always been frank about her toughness and ambition".
She is still one of the most famous women on the planet and "she inspires not because she gives other women a helping hand, but because she breaks the boundaries of what's considered acceptable for women". Smith in the book Record Collecting for Girls noted that most people associate Madonna with sex. Added Madonna was the first woman to do so-and with mainstream panache and approbation.
The sexual icon she constructed may indeed, then, accord power to the pussy. She made people cringe but also think differently about female performers. Her role as a provocateur changed boundaries for ensuing generations. She was a one-woman reality show. But in the post-Madonna universe, even highly original performers such as Janet Jackson now feel the pressure to expose their bodies on national television to sell albums". Perhaps, her book Sex is most notorious, considered by many as the artist's most controversial and transgressive period.
Aesthetic Representations of Erotic Activity pointed out that "perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of Madonna's sexual phenomenon is the extent to which her book marked a new threshold in the pornographic franchise".
Sex, Media and the Democratisation of Desire praised this period of Madonna's career, saying that she had "porno elegance" and that "Sex is the author of a cultural phenomenon of global proportions [due to the critics] and thanks to this Madonna established her iconic status and cultural influence.
According to The AdvocateMadonna is the greatest gay icon of all time. Peraino wrote that "no one has worked harder to be a gay icon than Madonna, and she has done so by using every possible taboo sexual in her videos, performances, and interviews". She has referenced every sacred monster from Dietrich to Monroe, revelled in upfront, often transgressive sexuality and demonstrated a highly developed sense of camp.
No wonder we loved her". Also, her lack of inhibition helped inspire a generation of gay men and women to live on their own terms.
Cultural impact of Madonna
TheologistRobert Goss wrote: Popular Music and Gender felt that "Madonna came closer to any other contemporary celebrity in being an above-ground queer icon".
Much has been made of Madonna as a postmodern icon, yet all her reference points have been resolutely modernist—from Steinbeck and Fitzgerald to Virginia Woolf and Sylvia Plath, to her predilection for narrative and psychoanalysis. Cultural Texts and Theories felt that "whether it is as a woman, mother, pop icon or fifty year old, the American singer challenges our preconceptions of who 'Madonna' is and, more broadly, what these identity categories mean within a postmodern context".
Honorific nicknames in popular music Madonna as a pop icon and figure on popular culture has generated scrutine analysis, but some journalists and critics like Carol Clerk wrote that "during her career, Madonna has transcended the term 'pop star' to become a global cultural icon".
What Madonna ultimately achieved is nothing less than reigning as the universe's Queen of Pop, as in music, culture, life". She is the undisputed queen of pop, sex goddess, and of course marketing".A invenção do Telégrafo e do código Morse
He further asserted that "after 30 years of career would take another three decades to meet her influence and legacy". In Meucci gave him models and a description of the device, but Grant was apparently careless with them, passing them on to engineers who were promoted or changed positions, which meant that other engineers ignorant of the situation were left to puzzle over the mysterious instruments.
At one point the models came under the scrutiny of Henry W. Pope, whose brother, Franklin L. Pope, was perhaps as important a figure in the history of the telegraph as Samuel F. Over a two year period the seemingly enigmatic models continued to slowly make their way from one Western Union engineer to another, until they finally disappeared into storage. During the period — he relied on and deposed the lawyer Thomas D. A Colonel William W. Bennett gave Meucci funds with which he was able to rebuild the principal models of the telettrofono he had created between andand which were similar to those that his wife had sold while he was recuperating from injuries received in the Westfield II ferry explosion.
And in Meucci secured a certified copy of his caveat from the U. During the time from to Meucci sought after and received some notoriety in the press and received messages of sympathy and solidarity from many people. Additional help came in the early s when companies arose having the expressed purpose of formulating ways to invalidate the Bell patents so that cheaper, better systems could compete with the Bell System.
Some New York newspapers published a letter by Meucci wherein he proclaimed himself the one true inventor of the telephone, and in September Meucci struck employment and licensing deals with a syndicate of Philadelphia and Chicago investors who were dissatisfied with current phone service and were determined to compete with the American Bell Telephone Company via their own organization, the Globe Telephone Company of New York.
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There was also hope in the form of the U. Government set out to prove that Meucci had actually discovered the electromagnetic telephone and that the German Philipp Reis had discovered the prototype of what we today call the microphone. While the Secretary of the Interior was holding public hearings in November of to determine if there were grounds for a government suit against Bell, the American Bell Telephone Company filed a bill of complaint against the Globe Telephone Company and Meucci for patent infringement in the Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York.
Judge Wallace, who had already ruled four times in favor of Bell for patent infringement in other cases, presided over this court. Bell did this more as a maneuver to counteract the attack of the Government, than to actually sue the Globe Telephone Company for any patent infringement, as claimed in their bill. During the relatively swift trial that followed American Bell Telephone Co. Still, there remained the U.
Whitman, refused, stating that a decision on the case would provide a reference point for issues of fundamental importance to the United States. However, Whitman died in September and with him the U. Still, the trial managed to drag on until November 30,when a new Attorney General, Joseph McKenna, announced that for all effects and purposes, the lawsuit between the Government and American Bell was to be considered moot. Antonio Meucci died on October 18, Photo at left is of Dr.
Catania and the Federazione Italiana di Elettrotecnica have devoted a Museum to Antonio Meucci having laid out a chronology of his inventing the telephone and tracing the history of the two trials involving Antonio Meucci and Alexander Graham Bell.
By digging into the records of the telephone-related trials, Catania claims that newly-discovered evidence on file at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D. These include drawings and notes on loading coils, anti-sidetone circuits and other telephony-related discoveries.
Indeed, Catania, digging into records of the National Archives, has uncovered some considerably disturbing details of the trial.
As Catania stated in his lecture at New York University: By ruling that way, Judge Wallace also discredited Meucci as having fooled himself, adding insult to injury.
To this extent he is corroborated by the testimony of a number of witnesses. But the proofs fail to show that he had reached any practical result beyond that of conveying speech mechanically by means of a wire telephone. From to around Bell worked with Cross on acoustics experiments and had borrowed MIT apparatus for use in his own lectures.
The existence of such a reel of wire naturally precludes the transmission of any mechanical vibration or effect between the endpoints. In an affidavit of July 21,Stetson had sworn the following: Globe trial in December and Januaryhis testimony showed an enigmatic reversal of opinion. I sincerely believe that he [Meucci] did not communicate to me the idea of a battery or batteries in connection with the insulated wire or wires.
Also that he did not communicate to me any idea of a ground connection, or of diaphragms, or of permanent magnets, or electro-magnets, or adjustments. Stetson, however, testified that he had lost it. He then said he had also lost letters on the same subject that Meucci had written to him. Catania found that there were many other bizarre occurrences in connection with the Bell vs.
In the text of his NYU lecture Catania lists the following: The Secretary of the Globe Company, though being one of the defendants, testified for the Bell Company. A potential witness for Meucci, Edward B. Shortly before his death, Mr. Grant had told one Mr. Moreover, his death propitiously occurred one day after the ex-superintendent of the company had offered his services to the Bell Company. However, they stated that their collection lacked the issues from December 1, to the whole of If retrieved, it would have rendered null the Bell patents.
Any way you look at it, the cards were stacked against Antonio Meucci. He was an Italian immigrant, part of the first wave of immigrants who came to the U. Of course, even if Meucci spoke perfect English and had ancestors who came to America on the Mayflower, he was still up against major corporate interests and their attorneys, all of whom managing to eventually defeat Meucci and nearly other legal challenges to the Bell telephone patents.
Not having any entrepreneurial acumen himself, Meucci entrusted the commercial exploitation of his promising inventions to others, which eventually led to his financial ruin. What should have been a Horatio Alger-like rags-to-riches story of: The Garibaldi-Meucci Museum Meucci's house was recognized as a historic landmark during his lifetime, but only because Garbaldi had lived there. Upon Garibaldi's death ina committee was formed to come up with something that would commemorate his stay in Staten Island.
Meucci was present that year when a marble plaque was placed over his home's front door. The Order has restored and maintained the house ever since. This small five room house, three windows wide, has a narrow porch running the length of the house dupported by four posts.